Aphaia (also spelled “Aphaea”) is an ancient Greek goddess associated with fertility, agriculture, and the island of Aegina. She was worshipped primarily on the island of Aegina, located in the Saronic Gulf of Greece. The Temple of Aphaia on the island is one of the best-preserved ancient Greek temples and is dedicated to this deity. Aphaia is often depicted in art as a young woman holding a bunch of grapes or a pomegranate, symbolizing her connection to fertility and abundance. As a fertility goddess, she was believed to bring prosperity and blessings to the land and its inhabitants. The worship of Aphaia was an important aspect of the religious life on Aegina, and the temple dedicated to her served as a significant religious center in the region. The temple’s architecture and sculptures offer valuable insights into the religious practices and beliefs of ancient Greeks. The cult of Aphaia likely had its origins in prehistoric times, and her significance continued through the Classical period. Aphaia’s association with the island of Aegina contributed to the island’s identity and its role in Greek mythology and history. The study of Aphaia enriches our understanding of ancient Greek religion and the diversity of deities worshipped in different regions of ancient Greece.