The Nenets, also known as the Samoyed people, are an indigenous ethnic group living in the Arctic regions of Russia and parts of Siberia. They are one of the most numerous indigenous groups in the Russian North, with a population of approximately 44,000 individuals. The Nenets are traditionally nomadic reindeer herders, and their way of life is intimately connected with the vast tundra and taiga landscapes they inhabit. The Nenets have a rich cultural heritage, including a unique language, music, and storytelling traditions. Reindeer herding is the central economic and cultural activity of the Nenets. They rely on reindeer for food, clothing, and shelter and move across the vast Arctic landscapes following seasonal grazing patterns. The Nenets have a profound understanding of the natural environment and have developed sustainable practices that allow them to maintain their way of life in one of the harshest environments on Earth. The Nenets have a spiritual worldview that centers on animism and shamanism. They believe that the natural world is inhabited by spirits, and shamans play a crucial role as intermediaries between the human and spirit realms. Shamanic rituals and ceremonies are conducted to seek guidance, healing, and protection from the spirits. The Nenets have faced various challenges to their traditional way of life, including the impacts of climate change, resource extraction, and changes in government policies. Despite these challenges, the Nenets continue to preserve their cultural identity and traditions, passing down their knowledge and skills from one generation to the next. Efforts are being made to support indigenous rights and promote sustainable development that respects and safeguards the cultural heritage of the Nenets and other indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The Nenets’ resilience and deep connection with their environment serve as a testament to the value of preserving indigenous cultures and knowledge for the well-being of both the communities themselves and the broader global community.