Lithuanian refers to the language, culture, and people of Lithuania, a country located in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. Lithuanian is one of the oldest surviving Indo-European languages and is closely related to Latvian. The Lithuanian people have a strong sense of cultural identity and have preserved their unique language and customs over the centuries. Lithuania has a rich historical legacy, having been one of the largest and most powerful states in medieval Europe during the reign of Grand Duke Vytautas the Great. The country’s history includes periods of rule by foreign powers, including the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Russian Empire. Despite periods of occupation and repression, the Lithuanian people have maintained their cultural distinctiveness and national consciousness. The Lithuanian language is the official language of Lithuania and holds a central place in the country’s national identity. Lithuanian folklore, songs (dainos), and traditional crafts are celebrated as part of the nation’s cultural heritage. Festivals, such as Užgavėnės (pre-Lenten festival) and Joninės (midsummer celebration), are important cultural events that showcase Lithuanian traditions and customs. The study of Lithuanian culture and language offers insights into the history of the Baltic region, the development of the Indo-European language family, and the resilience of a small nation in preserving its linguistic and cultural heritage. Lithuanian literature, art, and music reflect the country’s historical experiences and its aspirations for cultural continuity and national pride.