The Neolithic period, also known as the New Stone Age, is a significant era in human history that marked the transition from hunting and gathering to settled farming and agricultural practices. It began around 10,000 BCE and varied in different parts of the world. During this period, humans started domesticating animals and cultivating crops, which led to the establishment of permanent settlements and the development of more complex social structures. The Neolithic revolution was a crucial step in the advancement of human civilization and paved the way for technological innovations and cultural changes.