The Temple of Despoina at Lycosoura is an ancient sanctuary located on the slopes of Mount Lykaion in Arcadia, Greece. It was dedicated to the goddess Despoina, who was worshiped alongside her mother Demeter, as well as the god Zeus Lykaios.
The temple dates back to the 4th century BCE and was built using local stone. It consists of a rectangular main building and a circular tholos, or shrine, which was added later. The main building had an interior divided into three parts: a pronaos, or vestibule, a naos, or main chamber, and an adyton, or innermost sanctuary.
The temple was the center of the cult of Despoina, which was a mystery religion similar to the cult of Demeter and Persephone. The initiation rites were held in secrecy and little is known about them, but they involved the sacrifice of a black ram and the consumption of its meat.
The cult of Despoina was closely linked to the cult of Zeus Lykaios, who was worshiped in a nearby sanctuary on Mount Lykaion. The two cults shared many features, including the sacrifice of animals and the use of mysterious rituals.
The temple and its cult continued to be important throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and it was one of the few sanctuaries in Greece that was not destroyed by the spread of Christianity.
Today, the Temple of Despoina is in ruins, but some of its architectural elements have survived, including parts of the tholos and the foundations of the main building. Excavations have also revealed a number of votive offerings, including figurines and small statues of the gods, as well as inscriptions and other artifacts related to the cult.
The site is open to visitors and can be reached by car or on foot from the nearby town of Megalopolis. It is a popular destination for hikers and nature enthusiasts, as well as those interested in ancient Greek religion and archaeology.